Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor)


MORPHOLOGY:
The pied tamarin has nonopposable thumbs and the nails of the digits are claw-like except for the first digit on each toe. Unlike the marmosets, this species, like all tamarins, have canines that are larger than the incisors, and their teeth morphology does not allow them to gnaw into the bark for gum (exudates) like the marmosets (Fleagle, 1988).

RANGE:
The pied tamarin is found in the country of Brazil. This species is found in the canopy of swamp, secondary, and edge forests.

ECOLOGY:
The pied tamarin forages for a number of food items including: insects, ripe fruits, gum (exudates), and nectar (Kinzey, 1997). This is an arboreal species.

LOCOMOTION:
This diurnal species walks or runs quadrupedally through the forest, and is capable of leaping between branches (Snowdon and Soini, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The pied tamarin has a multimale-multifemale social system (Kinzey, 1997). The groups consist of unrelated adults, and the main mating system is polyandry, with monogamy and polygyny being reported (Kinzey, 1997). The offspring are cared for by all adult group members, which includes the males (Kinzey, 1997). The group sleeps huddled together, which occurs in vines or branches (Kinzey, 1997).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:
suprapubic marking: this is when an individual presses the suprapubic pad against a substrate and deposits secretions by pulling itself along or by pushing itself with its feet (Epple et al., 1993).

sternal marking: This is when a pied tamarin rubs the sternal gland against a substrate (Epple and Lorenz, 1967).

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
tonguing: This is when a pied tamarin rapidly moves the tongue out of its mouth across the lips. This may be a recognition signal, or could be used to communicate anger or curiosity. Head-flicking occurs with this behavior.

head-flicking: This display is when a pied tamarin quickly moves the head region in an upward motion. This display occurs with tonguing, and is used to communicate recognition, anger, or curiosity.

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:
The pied tamarin gives birth to twins like most callitrichids (Kinzey, 1997).

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Epple, G. and Lorenz, R. 1967. Vorkommen, Morphologie und Funktion der Sternaldruse bei den Platyrrhini. Folia Primatologica. Vol.7, 98-126.

Epple, G., Belcher, A.M., Kuderling, I., Zeller, U., Scolnick, L., Greenfield, K.L., Smith III, A.B. 1993. Making Sense Out of Scents: Species Differences in Scent Glands, Scent-marking Behaviour, and Scent-mark Composition in the Callitrichdae. in Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour, and Ecology. ed. Anthony B. Rylands, Oxford University Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Kinzey, W.G. 1997. Saguinus. in New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. ed. Warren G. Kinzey, Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Snowdon, C.T. and Soini, P. 1988. The Tamarins, Genus Saguinus. in Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2 PP. 223-298. Eds, R.A. Mittermeier, A.B. Rylands, A.F. Coimbra-Filho, and G.A.B. da Fonseca. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Last Updated: May 27, 2007.
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