Formosan Rock Macaque (Macaca cyclopis)


MORPHOLOGY:
This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages. The pelage is dark gray to brown in color. The tail is medium length.

RANGE:
This species is found on the island of Taiwan. This species prefers the mountainous terrain of Northeastern and Southwestern parts of the island; the Formosan rock macaque also likes to live in areas near the sea.

ECOLOGY:
The Formosan rock macaque consumes fruits, leaves, berries, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. This is a diurnal species. Group sizes range from 2 to 10 individuals, although this because of a drop in numbers in recent years, group sizes did reach 45 individuals about 20 years ago.

LOCOMOTION:
The Formosan rock macaque is a quadrupedal species (Fleagle, 1988).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The Formosan rock macaque has a multimale-multifemale social system, although now because of the recent drop in numbers, group structure resembles that of a unimale system. Females remain in their natal group with the onset of maturity, but males will disperse shortly before adolescence. There is a hierarchical system amongst group members based upon the matriline.

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
scream calls: This call is given by the Formosan rock macaque when they approached by a non-group conspecific.

gu call : This call functions as a contact call for the Formosan rock macaque, which keeps the group together. Group members answer this call with a sound that sounds like "kyaw-kyaw".

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:
fear grimace: The lips are retracted so that the teeth are shown; the teeth are clenched together (Estes, 1991). This display functions as an appeasement signal to reduce aggression in aggressive encounters (Estes, 1991).

staring with open mouth: This is the stare accompanied by the mouth being open but the teeth are covered (Estes, 1991). This is a threat expression (Estes, 1991).

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:
The Formosan rock macaque gives birth to a single offspring. During estrus the perineum of the female swells at the base of the tail, and there is also swelling along the thighs.

REFERENCES:
Burton, F. 1995. The Multimedia Guide to the Non-human Primates. Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Fleagle, J. G. 1988. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press.

Last Updated: June 14, 2007.
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