Vocal Communication


hic: This call is staccato in nature and is emitted in a series (2 to 20) (Fontaine, 1981). This call has an average duration of 35 milliseconds and a fundamental frequency that ranges from 425 hertz to 1.65 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This vocalization is described as occurring in situations of "widely variable exteroceptive and proprioceptive stimuli" (Fontaine, 1981). This behavior is performed by all individual except adult males (Fontaine, 1981).

chyook: This call is an intergrade of the hic and chick calls (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 80 to 120 milliseconds and a fundamental frequency that ranges from 350 hertz to 2.4 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call occurs at the end of social grooming, a mother calling her young, and when there is a loud noise (Fontaine, 1981). This call is emitted by adult females (Fontaine, 1981).The receiver will respond with hics, chyooks, or chicks (Fontaine, 1981).

chick: This call occurs in a series or as one note (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 165 to 383 milliseconds and a mean frequency that ranges from 1.2 to 1.8 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard when there is a loud noise or when there is a potential predator (Fontaine, 1981). This call is emitted by both sexes from older juveniles on up (Fontaine, 1981). This call will elicit chicks on the part of the receiver (Fontaine, 1981).

wee-ook: This is a whistling type call (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 218 to 300 milliseconds and a mean high frequency of 3.7 kilohertz and a mean terminal frequency of 2.89 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call may grade into a kreek, kik, or a rha (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard when an individual is interfered with an activity (Fontaine, 1981). This call is performed by older infants and younger juveniles (Fontaine, 1981). This call serves to communicate frustration (Fontaine, 1981).

rhork: This is a loud and acoustically complex call emitted by both sexes from older infants to subadult and adult females (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 248 to 616 milliseconds and a frequency that ranges from 900 hertz to 2.4 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard when the sender receives mild contact aggression (Fontaine, 1981). This call serves to communicate low to moderate fear (Fontaine, 1981). Mothers will retrieve young who emit this call (Fontaine, 1981).

kreek: This call consists of loud screams emitted by both sexes from older infants to subadults and by adult females (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 150 to 248 milliseconds and a fundamental frequency that ranges from 1.8 to 2.8 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard when the sender receives intense contact aggression (Fontaine, 1981). This call serves to communicate moderate to intense fear (Fontaine, 1981).

wa: This call consists of loud, high pitched screams emitted by both sexes from older infants to older juveniles (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard when the sender receives contact aggression in severe fights (Fontaine, 1981). This call serves to communicate very intense fear and this will elicit other conspecifics to join in the encounter (Fontaine, 1981).

kik: This call occurs in a series or as one note (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 21 to 75 milliseconds (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard in situations when a playful individual is attacked, and this call is emitted by both sexes from older infant to younger juveniles (Fontaine, 1981). This call serves to communicate a mixed emotion of fear and play (Fontaine, 1981).

rha: This call is described as being loud and noisy and is emitted by both sexes from older juveniles on up (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 300 to 510 milliseconds and a frequency that ranges from 650 hertz to 3.5 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call is seen in situations of a confident attack and as in a defensive threat (Fontaine, 1981). This call serves to communicate aggression (Fontaine, 1981).

purr: This call sounds like the purring noise made from the domestic cat (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 713 milliseconds to 2.4 seconds and a frequency that ranges from 450 hertz and 3 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard in situations of conspecific and interspecific contact and approach and is performed by both sexes from older infants on up (Fontaine, 1981).

hiss: This call is very low amplitude in nature (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 450 milliseconds to 2.4 seconds and a frequency that ranges between 1.5 and 3.25 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard in situations of play and play mixed with aggressive motor elements and is emitted by males from older juveniles on up (Fontaine, 1981). This call functions to decrease avoidance on the part of conspecifics (Fontaine, 1981).

keh: This call is low amplitude in nature and is produced by exhalation (Fontaine, 1981). This call has a duration that ranges from 30 to 68 milliseconds and a frequency that ranges between 650 hertz and 3.1 kilohertz (Fontaine, 1981). This call can grade into a kik call (Fontaine, 1981). This call is heard in situations of play and is performed by both sexes from older infants on up (Fontaine, 1981). This call functions to decrease avoidance on the part of conspecifics (Fontaine, 1981).

Last Updated: May 8, 2007.
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