Vocal Communication


clear call: This is a short call that sounds like "uh" and the mouth may be closed when this call is emitted (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). The pitch varies in this call, and it may rise or fall at the end (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This is the most common call of this species, with adult females emitting this call the most and males and juveniles using this call less frequently (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call functions as a contact signal, always relaying the individual's position to the rest of the group members (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). Gautier (1974) refers to this call as a type 2 call but denotes that there is a difference in call structure between adult males and adult females and young; male calls are referred to as type 2b calls and adults females and young are referred to as type 2a calls. The differences between types 2a and 2b calls are as follows: the frequency band for 2a calls is 0-10 kilohertz and for 2b calls it is 0.5 kilohertz, the maximal pitch for 2a calls is 1.9 kilohertz and for 2b calls it is 0.4-0.8 kilohertz, and the duration for 2a calls is less than 100 milliseconds and for 2b calls it is 100 milliseconds (Gautier, 1974).

long clear call: This is like the clear call but sounding like "mew" and is higher in pitch and longer than the clear call (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call is used by young juveniles (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972).

squeak:This is a high frequency call which is short in duration and is emitted by all group members when alarmed by a frightening stimulus (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). After this call is given, there is a period of silence as the individual remains motionless in a crouched posture (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). Gautier (1974) refers to this call as a type 1 call. This call is used by adult males and females (Gautier, 1974). Gautier (1974) found that this call had a frequency band of 0-16 kilohertz, a range of 100 meters, and a duration of 100 milliseconds.

chirp: This call sounds like "ksk" and is shorter and higher than the squeak call (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call functions as a fearful threat gesture and is given in less extreme cases of alarm than the squeak call (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call is emitted several times repeatedly at a fast pace and open mouth grin often occurs with it (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972).

pant chirp:This call sounds like "sh-sh-sh" while the individual rapidly inhales and exhales with the teeth clenched (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This high frequency call is given during mobbing behavior and when one individual watches two others copulate (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). A throaty version of this call is given in tense situations of when courtship and aggression are occurring together (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972).

screech: This call is high and long that falls in pitch and resembles feline screams (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call is given by adult females when excited and aggressive, especially when attacking males and may be mixed with pant chirps and open mouth and open mouth grin may accompany this call (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972).

twitter: This call is high pitched, long, and is a chittering noise (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call occurs during mounting and can be given by one or both parties involved (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). During actual copulation this call is much more quiet than when non-copulatory mounting occurs (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). Gautier (1974) refers to this call as a type 10 call. This call has a duration of 1 to a few seconds and a frequency band of 0 to 3 kilohertz (Gautier, 1974).

piercing shriek: This call is long and is a shrill cry which is emitted with the mouth wide open, head tilted back, and the eyebrows up and ears back pattern (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). This call is given by a yearling which has been attacked by a larger individual, usually a juvenile, and often adults will attack the larger individual if the call is given repeatedly and other juveniles will join in the attack (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972).

coo: This is a long and cooing sound given by infants and may function as an infant contact call (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). Gautier (1974) referred to this call as type 2d call.

gekker: This call is a cackling "gekker" sound that is given by exited infants (Wolfheim and Rowell, 1972). Gautier (1974) refers to this call as a type 5 call. This call has a range of 1-2 meters, a duration of 41 milliseconds, and a frequency band of 0-12 kilohertz (Gautier, 1974). This call occurs when there is a break of the mother-infant bond, and this call serves to restore mother-infant contact (Gautier, 1974).

Last Updated: June 4, 2007.
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